Antibody Protocol


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Antibody Protocol

antibody Known as immunoglobulin, an antibody is a large Y-shaped protein. It can identify and neutralize    foreign objects such as viruses and bacteria in the immune system . The antibody can recognize an antigen which is a unique part of the foreign target. Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (a structure analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, enabling these two structures to bind together precisely. Through this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag an infected cell or a microbe for attack in other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (including blocking a part of a microbe that is necessary for its survival and invasion). The main function of the humoral immune system is the production of antibodies.

Antibodies are produced by a plasma cell which was a type of white blood cell . Antibodies have two physical forms, one is a soluble form that is secreted from the cell, and the second is a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B cell receptor (BCR). We can only found the BCR on the surface of B cells .The BCR facilitates the activation of B cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories. Memory B cells that survive in the body and can remember that same antigen, so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. In most cases, it is necessary for the interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell to produce full activation of the B cell. Therefore, the antibody generation follows the antigen binding.Antibodies are typically compose of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains. Antibody heavy chains have several different types. In mammals, there are five different antibody isotypes, which perform different roles. They can give the appropriate immune response according to each different type of foreign object what they encounter.

Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region. This allows a single antibody to be used by several different parts of the immune system. 

The main function of the humoral immune system is production of antibodies.

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